NCTM released the book New Curriculum Focal Points. This book is available to teachers to help them gain a knowledge of what concepts to focus on during math instruction. Curriculum Focal Points are the important math topics for each grade. They are organized to develop essential skills and provide foundations for further mathematical learning.
NCTM believes that "When instruction focuses on a small number of key areas of emphasis, students gain extended experience with core concepts and skills. Such experience can facilitate deep understanding, mathematical fluency, and an ability to generalize. "This movement of conceptual understanding affects the methodologies used in the classroom.Some methodologies work better for different topics and their ability to be understood by children.