The crumbling of the Roman Empire, which was conquered by Barbarians from Northern Europe, symbolized the beginning of a millennium of intellectual standstill. However, these occurrences were beneficial with respect to fitness. The lavish lifestyles of the Romans had resulted in the complete deterioration of the society's fitness level. The barbaric tribes from Northern Europe possessed similar characteristics to primitive people. Their lifestyle consisted of hunting and gathering food, and tending to cattle. Physical activity and fitness were prerequisites for survival. Therefore, despite the cultural setbacks that occurred with the fall of the Roman Empire, fitness experienced a revival during the Dark and Middle Ages.