By the turn of the century the Mafia had become very powerful and widespread throughout Italy in the face of widespread unemployment and poverty that permeated not only Sicily, but the rest of Europe as well. Many of the underprivileged began to immigrate to America to find better jobs to support their families. It is speculated that this is when the Mafia formally entered America and began to set up shop. By 1922 Mussolini had taken a firm grip on Italy and began to crack down on the Mafia, either sending them to prison or assassinating them. Mussolini's wrath pushed more and more Mafiosi out of Italy and into America. During the Fascist period in Italy, Cesare Mori, prefect of Palermo, used special powers granted to him to prosecute the Mafia, forcing many Mafiosi to flee abroad or risk being jailed. Many of the Mafiosi who escaped fled to the United States, among them Joseph Bonanno, nicknamed Joe Bananas, who came to dominate the U.S. branch of the Mafia. Though the mafia was weakened, it had not been defeated as claimed. Despite his assault on their brethren, Mussolini had his admirers in the New York Mafia, notably Vito Genovese (although he was from Naples and not from Sicily). The Mafiosi originally settled in large cities, like Chicago and New York, where industry was predominant and there were opportunities for crime, fraud and racketeering everywhere.